Coredemptrix Mediatrix Advocate
A Response to 7 Common Objections
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To Lysbeth, my beloved wife; and
to our precious children, John-Mark, Michael, Christiana, Mariana,
Joseph, Annaleah, Mary-Bernadette, and Philumena.
Ernesto Cardinal Corripio Ahumada
May 1, 2001
On December 23, 2000, The New York
Times ran a major story on the international Catholic movement
Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici, which is seeking to encourage the
papal definition of the Blessed Virgin Mary as "Co-redemptrix,
Mediatrix of all graces, and Advocate." Existing Catholic
teaching of Mary as a Coredemptrix refers to the unique participation
of Mary, Mother of Jesus, in the redemption accomplished by Jesus
Christ, the divine Redeemer.
The New York Times article was in turn
reprinted in a great number of U.S. major newspapers and therefore
sparked great and high-spirited debate across the country and
internationally over the idea of the Blessed Virgin as a "Co-redemptrix"
with Jesus Christ.
Although slightly different in their
expression, most objections to the teaching of the Catholic Church
of the Blessed Virgin Mary as Co-redemptrix fall into the same
basic categories. The following is a summary of seven common objections
to Mary as Co-redemptrix, taken principally from recent newspaper
publications, both secular and Christian. A basic response will
be offered to each objection.
Calling Mary a "Co-redemptrix" places her
on an equal level with Jesus Christ, the Divine Son of God,
making her something like a fourth person of the Trinity,
a goddess or quasi-divine goddess, which is blasphemy for
any true Christian.
The term "co-redemptrix"
is properly translated "the woman with the redeemer"
or more literally "she who buys back with [the redeemer]."
The prefix "co" comes from the Latin term "cum"
which means "with" and not "equal to." Co-redemptrix
therefore as applied to Mary refers to her exceptional cooperation
with and under her divine son Jesus Christ, in the redemption
of the human family, as manifested in Christian Scripture.
With Mary's free and active "fiat"
to the invitation of the angel Gabriel to become the mother of
Jesus, "Be it done unto me according to your word" (Lk.
1:38), she uniquely cooperated with the work of redemption by
giving the divine Redeemer his body, which was the very instrument
of human redemption. "We have been sanctified by the offering
of the body of Jesus Christ once for all" (Heb. 10:10), and
the body of Jesus Christ is given to him through the free, active,
and unique cooperation of the Virgin Mary. By virtue of giving
flesh to the "Word made flesh" (Jn. 1:14), who in turn
redeems humanity, the Virgin of Nazareth uniquely merits the title
Co-redemptrix. In the words of the late Mother Teresa of Calcutta,
"Of course Mary is the Co-redemptrix - she gave Jesus his
body, and his body is what saved us." 
The New Testament prophecy of Simeon
in the temple also reveals the suffering, co-redemptive mission
of Mary in direct union with her Redeemer son in their one unified
work of redemption:
"Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, 'Behold,
this child is set for the fall and rise of many in Israel, and
will be a sign of contradiction, and a sword shall pierce through
your own soul, too" (Lk. 2:34-35).
But the climax of Mary's role as Co-redemptrix
under her divine son takes place at the foot of the Cross, where
the total suffering of the mother's heart is obediently united
to the suffering of the Son's heart in fulfillment of the Father's
plan of redemption (cf. Gal. 4:4). As the fruit of this redemptive
suffering, Mary is given by the crucified Savior as the spiritual
mother of all peoples,: "Woman, behold your son!' Then he
said to the disciple, 'behold, your mother!" (Jn. 19:27).
As described by Pope John Paul II, Mary was "spiritually
crucified with her crucified son" at Calvary, and "her
role as Co-redemptrix did not cease with the glorification of
her Son."  Even after the accomplishment of the acquisition
of the graces of redemption at Calvary, Mary's co-redemptive role
continues in the distribution of those saving graces to the hearts
The earliest Christian writers and
Fathers of the Church explained Marian co-redemption with great
profundity in simplicity in the first theological model of Mary
as the "New Eve." Essentially, they articulated that
as Eve, the first "mother of the living" (Gen. 3:20),
was directly instrumental with Adam, the father of the human race,
in the loss of grace for all humanity, so too Mary, the "New
Eve," was directly instrumental with Jesus Christ, whom St.
Paul calls the "New Adam" (Cf. 1 Cor. 15:45-48), in
the restoration of grace to all humanity. In the words of 2nd
century Church Father, St. Irenaeus: "Just as Eve, wife of
Adam, yet still a virgin, became by her disobedience the cause
of death for herself and the whole human race, so Mary, too, espoused
yet a virgin, became by her obedience the cause of salvation for
herself and the whole human race." 
In light of her unique and direct cooperation
with the Redeemer in the restoration of grace for the human family
(cf. Gen. 3:15), Mary became universally known in the early Church
as the "New Mother of the Living," and her instrumental
co-redemption with Christ was well summed up in the succinct expression
of 4th century Church Father, St. Jerome: "Death through
Eve, life through Mary." 
Explicit references to Marian co-redemption
as Mary's unique participation with and under Jesus Christ in
redeeming or "buying back" humanity from the slavery
of Satan and sin is present throughout Christian Tradition. For
example, the 7th century Church writer, Modestus of Jerusalem,
states that through Mary, we "are redeemed from the tyranny
of the devil."  St. John Damascene (8th century) greets
her: "Hail thou, through whom we are redeemed from the curse."
 St. Bernard of Clairvaux (12th century) preaches that "through
her, man was redeemed."  The great Franciscan Doctor,
St. Bonaventure (13th century), aptly summarizes Christian Tradition
in this teaching: "That woman (namely Eve), drove us out
of Paradise and sold us; but this one (Mary) brought us back again
and bought us." 
Although there was never any question
of the total and radical dependency of the Virgin Mary's participation
in redemption upon the divine work and merits of Jesus Christ
in the minds of the Church fathers and doctors, nonetheless early
Christian Tradition did not hesitate to teach and preach the unparalleled
intimate participation of the woman, Mary, in the "buying
back" or redeeming of the human race from the slavery of
Satan. As humanity was sold by a man and a woman, so it was God's
will that humanity would be bought back by a Man and a woman.
It is upon this rich Christian foundation
that 20th century popes and saints have used the title Co-redemptrix
for Mary's unique role in human redemption, as exemplified in
the contemporary use of Co-redemptrix for Mary by Pope John Paul
II on five occasions during his present pontificate.  "Co-redemptrix"
as used by the popes means no more that Mary is a goddess equal
with Jesus Christ than St. Paul's identification of all Christians
as "God's co-workers" (1 Cor. 3:9) means that Christians
are gods equal to the one God.
All Christians are rightly called to
be co-workers or "co-redeemers" with Jesus Christ (cf.
Col. 1:24) in the reception and cooperation with grace necessary
for our own redemption and the redemption of others - personal
subjective redemption made possible by the historic objective
redemption or "buying back" accomplished by Jesus Christ,
the "New Adam," the Redemptor, and Mary, the "New
Eve," the Co-redemptrix.
Calling the Blessed Virgin Mary "Coredemptrix"
is against proper Christian ecumenism, as it leads to division
between Catholics and other Christians.
Arguably the most commonly posed objection
to the use of Co-redemptrix (let alone any potential definition
of the doctrine) is its perceived opposition to Christian ecumenism.
Therefore we must begin with an accurate definition of authentic
Christian ecumenism and its appropriate corresponding activity
as understood by the Catholic Church.
In his papal document on ecumenism
Ut Unum Sint ("that they all may be one" (Jn. 17:21),
Pope John Paul II defines authentic Christian ecumenism in terms
of prayer "as the soul" and dialogue "as the body"
working towards the ultimate goal of true and lasting Christian
unity.  At the same time, the Catholic imperative to work
and strive for Christian unity does not permit in any degree the
reduction or dilution of Catholic doctrinal teaching, as such
would both lack Catholic integrity and concurrently be misleading
in dialogue with other non-Catholic Christians as to what the
Catholic Church truly believes.
As the Second Vatican Council clearly
teaches in terms of ecumenical dialogue, "It is, of course,
essential that doctrine be clearly presented in its entirety.
Nothing is so foreign to the spirit of ecumenism as a false conciliatory
approach which harms the purity of Catholic doctrine and obscures
its assured genuine meaning." 
John Paul II further explains: "With
regard to the study of areas of disagreement, the Council requires
that the whole body of doctrine be clearly presented. At the same
time, it asks that the manner and method of expounding the Catholic
faith should not be a hindrance to dialogue with our brothers
and sisters.... Full communion of course will have to come about
through the acceptance of the whole truth into which the Holy
Spirit guides Christ's disciples. Hence all forms of reductionism
or facile 'agreement' must be absolutely avoided." 
An accurate understanding then of ecumenism
from the Catholic perspective is the critical Church mandate to
pray, to dialogue, and to work together in charity and in truth
in the seeking of true Christian unity among all brothers and
sisters in Christ, but without any compromise in presenting the
full doctrinal teachings of the Church. The present pope, so personally
dedicated to authentic Christian unity, again affirms: "The
unity willed by God can be attained only by the adherence of all
to the content of revealed faith in its entirety. In matters of
faith, compromise is in contradiction with God who is Truth. In
the Body of Christ, 'the way, the truth, and the life' (Jn. l4:6),
who could consider legitimate a reconciliation brought about at
the expense of the truth?" 
Let us now apply this understanding
of ecumenism to the question of Mary Co-redemptrix. The Co-redemptrix
title for Mary has been used in repeated papal teaching, and the
doctrine of Marian co-redemption as Mary's unique participation
with and under Jesus Christ in the redemption of humanity constitutes
the repeated doctrinal teaching of the Second Vatican Council:
....She devoted herself totally, as
handmaid of the Lord, to the person and work of her Son, under
and with him, serving the mystery of redemption, by the grace
of Almighty God. Rightly, therefore, the Fathers see Mary not
merely as passively engaged by God, but as freely cooperating
in the work of man's salvation through faith and obedience. 
Thus the Blessed Virgin advanced in
her pilgrimage of faith, and faithfully persevered in union with
her Son unto the cross, where she stood, in keeping with the divine
plan, enduring with her only begotten Son the intensity of his
suffering, associated herself with his sacrifice in her mother's
heart, and lovingly consenting to the immolation of this victim
which was born of her. 
She conceived, brought forth, and nourished
Christ, she presented Him to the Father in the temple, shared
her Son's suffering as He died on the cross. Thus, in a wholly
singular way she cooperated by her obedience, faith, hope, and
burning charity in the work of the Savior in restoring supernatural
life to souls. For this reason she is a mother to us in the order
of grace. 
Thereby, there is no question that
Marian Co-redemption constitutes the doctrinal teaching of the
Catholic Church and as such must be presented in any true articulation
of Catholic teaching, which critically includes the domain of
true ecumenical dialogue.
To therefore claim that Mary Co-redemptrix
in title and doctrine is in any way contrary to the ecumenical
mission of the Church is fundamentally to misunderstand the ecumenical
mission of the Church itself. Full Catholic doctrine, including
the doctrine of Marian co-redemption, must be included for any
true dialogue seeking Christian unity. Moreover, the purposeful
absence of Mary Coredemptrix in full ecumenical dialogue
and in the overall ecumenical mission of the Church would lack
integrity and justice for the Catholic ecumenist towards non-Catholic
Christians who have presumably, on their part, brought the full
teachings of their particular ecclesial body to the tables of
dialogue. To return to the Christian admonition of John Paul II:
"In the Body of Christ, 'the way, the truth, and the life'
(Jn. 14:6), who could consider legitimate a reconciliation brought
about at the expense of the truth?" 
Therefore calling the Blessed Virgin
Mary a "Co-redemptrix" in light of Christian Scripture
and Christian Tradition is in no sense contrary to ecumenism,
but rather constitutes an essential element of the Christian integrity
demanded by true ecumenism, since Marian co-redemption constitutes
a doctrinal teaching of the Catholic Church.
In fact, if the doctrine of Co-redemptrix
presently constitutes a source of confusion for some Christians,
connoting for some an image of goddess or other concepts of Marian
excesses, then it appears all the more appropriate that a clear
articulation of this Marian doctrine be given to brother and sister
Christians in ecumenical dialogue. There is also the potential
benefit of a formal papal definition providing the greatest possible
clarity from the highest possible Catholic authority. In the words
of the late John Cardinal O'Connor of New York: "Clearly,
a formal papal definition would be articulated in such precise
terminology that other Christians would lose their anxiety that
we do not distinguish adequately between Mary's unique association
with Christ and the redemptive power exercised by Christ alone."
Another legitimate ecumenical perspective
on Marian co-redemption and her subsequent spiritual motherhood
is that as spiritual mother of all peoples, Mary can be a principal
means of Christian unity among divided Christian brothers and
sisters, rather than being its prime obstacle. Lutheran pastor
Rev. Dr. Charles Dickson calls on Protestant Christianity to re-examine
the documented positive Marian defense and devotion of many of
its own founders, as manifested, for example, in the words of
Martin Luther in his Commentary on the Magnificat: "May the
tender Mother of God herself procure for me the spirit of wisdom
profitably and thoroughly to expound this song of hers.... May
Christ grant us a right under standing ... through the intercession
and for the sake of His dear Mother Mary...."  Luther
goes on to call Mary the "workshop of God," the "Queen
of heaven," and states: "The Virgin Mary means to say
simply that her praise will be sung from one generation to another
so that there will never be a time when she will not be praised."
On the role of Mary's universal spiritual
motherhood as an instrument of Christian unity, Dr. Dickson comments
In our time, we are still faced with
the tragic divisions among the world's Christians. Yet, standing
on the brink of a bright new ecumenical age, Mary as model of
catholicity, or universality, becomes even more important. In
the course of many centuries from the beginning of the Church,
from the time of Mary and the Apostles, the motherhood of the
Church was one. This fundamental motherhood cannot vanish, even
though divisions occur. Mary, through her motherhood, maintains
the universality of Christ's flock. As the entire Christian community
turns to her, the possibility of a new birth, a reconciliation,
increases. So Mary, the mother of the Church, is also a source
of reconciliation among her scattered and divided children. 
Calling the Mother of Jesus "Co-redemptrix"
or her subsequent role as "Mediatrix" implies a
role of mediation by someone other than Jesus Christ, but
scripture plainly states in 1 Timothy 2:5 that "there
is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ
Jesus", and therefore no creature can rightly be a mediator.
The definition of "mediator"
(in Greek, mesitis - "go-between") is a person who intervenes
between two other persons or parties for the goal of uniting or
reconciling the parties. Applying this term to Jesus Christ, St.
Paul indeed states that there is one mediator between the parties
of God and humanity, namely the "man Christ Jesus."
No one therefore reaches God the Father except through the one,
perfect mediation of Jesus Christ.
But the question still remains, does
the one perfect mediation of Jesus Christ prevent or rather provide
for others to subordinately participate in the one mediation of
Jesus Christ? In other words, does the one exclusive mediation
of Christ prevent any creature from participating in that one
essential mediation? Or does its divine and human perfection allow
others to share in his one mediation in a subordinate and secondary
Christian Scripture offers examples
similar to this question of mediation where Christians are obliged
to participate in something that is also "one," exclusive,
and dependent entirely on the person of Jesus Christ.
The one Sonship of Jesus Christ. There
is only one true son of God, Jesus Christ, who was begotten from
God the Father (1 Jn. 1-4). But all Christians are called to participate
in the one true sonship of Jesus Christ by becoming "adopted
sons" in Christ (cf. 2 Cor. 5:17; 1 Jn. 3:1; Gal. 2:20),
as a true sharing in the one sonship of Christ through baptism,
which allows adopted sons and daughters to also share in the inheritance
of the one Son, that of everlasting life.
Living in the One Christ. All Christians
are called to share in the "one life" of Jesus Christ,
for grace is to participate in the life and the love of Jesus
Christ, and through him in the life and love of the Trinity. Thus,
St. Paul teaches, ". . .it is not I, but Christ who lives
in me" (Gal. 2:20) and 2 Peter 1:4 calls Christians to become
"partakers of the divine nature," to live in the one
Christ, and thus in the life of the Trinity.
The one Priesthood of Jesus Christ.
All Christians also are called to share in different degrees in
the one priesthood of Jesus Christ. The book of Hebrews identifies
Jesus Christ as the one "high priest" (cf. Heb. 3:1;
4:14; 5:10) who offers the great spiritual sacrifice of himself
on Calvary. And yet Scripture calls all Christians, albeit on
different levels of participation, ministerial (cf. Acts 14:22)
or royal (cf. 1 Pet. 2:9), to participate in the one priesthood
of Jesus Christ in offering "spiritual sacrifice." All
Christians are instructed to "offer spiritual sacrifices
acceptable to God" (1 Pet. 2:5, 2:9).
In all these cases, the New Testament
calls Christians to share in that which is one and unique to Jesus
Christ, the Alpha and Omega, in true though completely subordinate
levels of participation. In reference, then, to Christ the one
Mediator (1 Tim. 2:5), we see the same Christian imperative for
others to share or participate in the one mediation of Jesus Christ,
but in a secondary mediation entirely dependent upon the one perfect
mediation of Jesus Christ.
The pivotal christological question
must then be asked: Does such subordinate sharing in the one mediation
of Christ obscure the one mediation of Christ, or rather does
it manifest the glory of his one mediation? This is easily answered
by imagining a contemporary world without "adopted sons and
daughters in Christ," without Christians today sharing in
the one life of Jesus Christ in grace, or without any Christians
offering spiritual sacrifices in the Christian priesthood. Such
an absence of human participation would only result in obscuring
the one Sonship, the one High Priesthood, and the very Life of
grace in Jesus Christ.
The same principle is true regarding
participation in the one mediation of Jesus Christ in a dependent
and subordinate way: the more human participation in the one mediation
of Christ, the more the perfection, power, and glory of the unique
and necessary mediation of Jesus Christ is manifested to the world.
Christian Scripture moreover offers
several examples of God-instituted human mediators who cooperated
by divine initiative in uniting humanity with God. The great prophets
of the Old Testament were God-ordained mediators between Yahweh
and the people of Israel, oftentimes seeking to return the people
of Israel to their fidelity to Yahweh (cf. Is. 1; Jer. 1; Ez.
2). The Old Testament patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses,
etc., were at God's initiative the human mediators of the saving
covenant between Yahweh and the people of Israel (cf. Gen. 12:2;
15:18; Ex. 17:11). St. Paul identifies Moses' mediation of the
law to the Israelites: "Why then the law? It was ordained
by God through an intermediary" (Gal. 3:19-20). And the angels,
with hundreds of mediating acts spanning Old and New Testaments,
are God's messengers, who mediate for reconciliation between God
and the human family, both before and after the coming of Christ,
the one Mediator (cf. Gen. 3:24; Lk. 1:26; Lk. 1:19).
Regarding Mary, Christian Scripture
also clearly reveals the secondary and subordinate participation
of the Mother of Jesus in the one mediation of Jesus Christ. At
the Annunciation, Mary's free and active "yes" to the
invitation of the angel mediates to the world Jesus Christ, the
Redeemer of the world and the Author of all graces (cf. Lk. 1:38).
For this unique participation in giving to the Redeemer his body
and mediating the Source of all graces to the world, Mary can
rightly be called both "Co-redemptrix" and "Mediatrix
of all graces" as one who uniquely shares in the one mediation
of Jesus Christ.
This unique Marian participation in
Christ's mediation, specific to the Redemption of Jesus Christ,
is climaxed at Calvary. At the cross, her spiritual suffering
united to the redemptive sacrifice of her Son, as the New Eve
with the New Adam, leads to the universal spiritual fruits of
the acquisition of the graces of redemption, which, in turn, leads
to the gift of spiritual motherhood from the heart of the Crucified
Christ to every human heart: "Behold your mother!" (Jn.
19:27). The Redeemer's gift of his own mother as spiritual mother
to all humanity leads to the spiritual nourishment by the Mother
to her children in the order of grace. This constitutes the distribution
of the graces of Calvary by Mary to her spiritual children as
Mediatrix of all graces, which perpetually continues her unique
sharing in the one saving mediation of Jesus Christ.
John Paul II explains the Catholic
understanding of this unique Marian participation in the one mediation
of Jesus Christ:
Mary entered, in a way all her own,
into the one mediation "between God and men" which is
the mediation of the man Christ Jesus.... We must say that through
this fullness of grace and supernatural life, she was especially
predisposed to cooperation with Christ, the one Mediator of human
salvation. And such cooperation is precisely this mediation subordinated
to the mediation of Christ. In Mary's case we have a special and
exceptional mediation. 
And in his commentary on 1 Timothy
2:5 and Mary's maternal mediation, John Paul II further states:
We recall that Mary's mediation is
essentially defined by her divine motherhood. Recognition of her
role as mediatrix is moreover implicit in the expression "our
Mother," which presents the doctrine of Marian mediation
by putting the accent on her motherhood.... In proclaiming Christ
the one mediator (cf. 1 Tim. 2:5-6), the text of St. Paul's Letter
to Timothy excludes any other parallel mediation, but not subordinate
mediation. In fact, before emphasizing the one exclusive mediation
of Christ, the author urges "that supplications, prayers,
intercessions and thanksgivings be made for all men" (2:1).
Are not prayers a form of mediation? Indeed, according to St.
Paul, the unique mediation of Christ is meant to encourage other
dependent, ministerial forms of mediation.... In truth, what is
Mary's maternal mediation if not the Father's gift to humanity?
Therefore we can see Mary's participation
in the one mediation of Jesus Christ as unique and unparalleled
by any other human or angelic participation, and yet entirely
subordinate and dependent upon the one mediation of Jesus Christ.
As such, Mary's motherly mediation manifests the true glory and
power of Christ's mediation as no other. The Marian titles and
roles of Co-redemptrix and Mediatrix of all graces (and Advocate
as well) do not in any way violate the prohibition of 1 Tim. 2:5
against any parallel, autonomous, or rival mediation, but bespeak
a unique and exceptional motherly participation in that one, perfect,
and saving mediation of Jesus Christ.
In the words of Anglican Oxford scholar,
Dr. John Macquarrie:
The matter [of Marian mediation] cannot
be settled by pointing to the danger of exaggeration and abuse,
or by appealing to isolated texts of scripture as the verse quoted
above from 1 Timothy 2:5 or by the desire not to say anything
that might offend one's partners in ecumenical dialogue. Unthinking
enthusiasts may have elevated Mary's position to a virtual equality
with Christ, but this aberration is not a necessary consequence
of recognizing that there may be a truth striving for expression
in words like Mediatrix and Co-redemptrix.
All responsible theologians would agree
that Mary's co-redemptive role is subordinate and auxiliary to
the central role of Christ. But if she does have such a role,
the more clearly we understand it, the better. And like other
doctrines concerning Mary, it is not only saying something about
her, but something more general about the Church as a whole, and
even humanity as a whole. 
1. Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Personal
Interview, Calcutta, August 14th 1993
2. John Paul II, Papal Address, Jan.
31, 1985, Guayaquil, Ecuador, (O.R., March
3. St. Irenaeus of Lyons, Adversus
haeresus, III, 22, emphasis author's.
4. St. Jerome. Epist. 22, 21.
5. Modestus of Jerusalem, Migne PG
6 St. John Damascene, PG 86; 658.
7. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Ser. III,
8. St. Bonaventure, de don. Sp. 6;
14., emphasis author's.
9. Cf. Calkins, "Pope John Paul
II's Teaching on Marian Coredemption" as found in Miravalle,
ed., Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, Theological Foundations
10. Cf. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint,
11. Second Vatican Council, Unitatis
Redintegratio, n. 11.
12. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, n.
13. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, 18.
14. Second Vatican Council, Lumen Gentium,
15. Lumen Gentium, n. 58.
16. Lumen Gentium, n. 61.
17. John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, 18.
18.. John Cardinal O'Connor, Endorsement
Letter For Papal Definition of Mary, Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix,
Advocate, February 14, 1994.
19. Martin Luther, Commentary on the
Magnificat, 1521, as quoted in Dr. Charles Dickson, A Protestant
Pastor Looks at Mary, 1996, Our Sunday Visitor Press, p.41,42.
21. Dickson, A Protestant Pastor Looks
at Mary, p. 48-49.
22 John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater,
23 John Paul II, Papal Address, Rome,
October 1, 1997, L'Osservatore Romano,
24. J. Macquarrie, "Mary Co-redemptrix
and Disputes over Justification and Grace"
in Mary Co-redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, Theological Foundations
Copyright © 2001 Queenship Publishing - All Rights Reserved.